Corelli Vivaldi

  1. Corelli E Vivaldi
  2. Corelli And Vivaldi
  3. La Folia Corelli Vivaldi
  4. Vivaldi Corelli La Follia
  5. Corelli And Vivaldi

This arrangement of La Folia is a medley of La Folia music composed by Marin Marais, Arcangelo Corelli, and Antonio Vivaldi. Marin Marais (1656-1728) was a French composer and studied composition with the prominent French composer Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632-1687). Listen to Vivaldi & Corelli by Amandine Beyer & Gli Incogniti on Apple Music. Stream songs including 'Concerto for Two Violins and Cello in G Minor, Op. Adagio e spiccato', 'Concerto for Two Violins and Cello in G Minor, Op. Allegro' and more. View credits, reviews, tracks and shop for the 1994 CD release of 'La Follia' on Discogs. This VIVALDI/CORELLI/BEYER collection groups interpretations by Amandine Beyer and the ensemble Gli Incogniti of major works by two Italian composers: Vivaldi and Corelli.

Corelli E Vivaldi

Arcangelo Corelli
The Italian composer and violinist Arcangelo Corelli exercised a wide influence on his contemporaries and on the succeeding generation of composers. Born in Fusignano, Italy, in 1653, a full generation before Bach or Handel, he studied in Bologna, a distinguished musical center, then established himself in Rome in the 1670s. By 1679 had entered the service of Queen Christina of Sweden, who had taken up residence in Rome in 1655, after her abdication the year before, and had established there an academy of literati that later became the Arcadian Academy. Thanks to his musical achievements and growing international reputation he found no trouble in obtaining the support of a succession of influential patrons. History has remembered him with such titles as 'Founder of Modern Violin Technique,' the 'World's First Great Violinist,' and the 'Father of the Concerto Grosso.'

His contributions can be divided three ways, as violinist, composer, and teacher. It was his skill on the new instrument known as the violin and his extensive and very popular concert tours throughout Europe which did most to give that instrument its prominent place in music. It is probably correct to say that Corelli's popularity as a violinist was as great in his time as was Paganini's during the 19th century. Yet Corelli was not a virtuoso in the contemporary sense, for a beautiful singing tone alone distinguished great violinists in that day, and Corelli's tone quality was the most remarkable in all Europe according to reports. In addition, Corelli was the first person to organize the basic elements of violin technique.

Corelli's popularity as a violinist was equaled by his acclaim as a composer. His music was performed and honored throughout all Europe; in fact, his was the most popular instrumental music. It is important to note in this regard that a visit of respect to the great Corelli was an important part of the Italian tour of the young Handel. Yet Corelli's compositional output was rather small. All of his creations are included in six opus numbers, most of them being devoted to serious and popular sonatas and trio sonatas. In the Sonatas Opus 5 is found the famous 'La Folia' Variations for violin and accompaniment. One of Corelli's famous students, Geminiani, thought so much of the Opus 5 Sonatas that he arranged all the works in that group as Concerti Grossi. However, it is in his own Concerti Grossi Opus 6 that Corelli reached his creative peak and climaxed all his musical contributions.

Although Corelli was not the inventor of the Concerto Grosso principle, it was he who proved the potentialities of the form, popularized it, and wrote the first great music for it. Through his efforts, it achieved the same pre-eminent place in the baroque period of musical history that the symphony did in the classical period. Without Corelli's successful models, it would have been impossible for Vivaldi, Handel, and Bach to have given us their Concerto Grosso masterpieces.

The Concerto Grosso form is built on the principle of contrasting two differently sized instrumental groups. In Corelli's, the smaller group consists of two violins and a cello, and the larger of a string orchestra. Dynamic markings in all the music of this period were based on the terrace principle; crescendo and diminuendi are unknown, contrasts between forte and piano and between the large and small string groups constituting the dynamic variety of the scores.

Of all his compositions it was upon his Opus 6 that Corelli labored most diligently and devotedly. Even though he wouldn't allow them to be published during his lifetime, they still became some of the most famous music of the time. The date of composition is not certain, for Corelli spent many years of his life writing and rewriting this music, beginning while still in his twenties.

The Trio Sonata, an instrumental composition generally demanding the services of four players reading from three part-books, assumed enormous importance in baroque music, developing from its earlier beginnings at the start of the seventeenth century to a late flowering in the work of Handel, Vivaldi, Johann Sebastian Bach and their contemporaries, alter the earlier achievements of Arcangelo Corelli in the form. Instrumentation of the trio sonata, possibly for commercial reasons, allowed some freedom of choice. Nevertheless the most frequently found arrangement became that for two violins and cello, with a harpsichord or other chordal instrument to fill out the harmony. The trio sonata was the foundation of the concerto grosso, the instrumental concerto that contrasted a concertino group of the four instruments of the trio sonata with the full string orchestra, which might double louder passages.

Corelli's dedications of his Sonatas mark his progress among the great patrons of Rome. He dedicated his first set of twelve Church Sonatas, Opus 1, published in 1681, to Queen Christina, describing the work as the first fruits of his studies. His second set of trio Sonatas, Chamber Sonatas, Opus 2, was published in 1685 with a dedication to a new patron, Cardinal Pamphili, whose service he entered in 1687, with the violinist Fornari and cellist Lulier. A third set of trio sonatas, a second group of twelve Church Sonatas, Opus 3, was issued in 1689, with a dedication to Francesco II of Modena, and a final set of a dozen Chamber Sonatas, Opus 4, was published in 1694 with a dedication to a new patron, Cardinal Ottoboni, the young nephew of Pope Alexander VIII, after Cardinal Pamphili's removal in 1690 to Bologna. Cardinal Ottoboni became Corelli's main patron, who made it possible for Corelli to pursue his career without monetary worries, and it would seem that no composer has ever had a more devoted or understanding patron.

Corelli's achievements as a teacher were again outstanding. Among his many students were included not only Geminiani but the famed Antonio Vivaldi. It was Vivaldi who became Corelli's successor as a composer of the great Concerti Grossi and who greatly influenced the music of Bach.

Corelli occupied a leading position in the musical life of Rome for some thirty years, performing as a violinist and directing performances often on occasions of the greatest public importance. His style of composition was much imitated and provided a model, both through a wide dissemination of works published in his lifetime and through the performance of these works in Rome. Corelli died a wealthy man on January 19, 1713, at Rome in the 59th year of his life. But long before his death, he had taken a place among the immortal musicians of all time, and he maintains that exalted position today.

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La Folía (Spanish), or Follies of Portugal (English), also known as folies du Portugal or folies d'Espagne (French), La Follia (Italian), and Folia (Portuguese), is one of the oldest remembered[citation needed] European musical themes, or primary material, generally melodic, of a composition, on record. The theme exists in two versions, referred to as early and late folias, the earlier being faster.

'The 'later' folia', a harmonic-metric scheme consisting of two eight-bar phrases, was first used in approximately 1670.[1] The key signature, showing just one flat for G minor (instead of two), follows a Baroque period practice. Play
Early folia[2]Play.
Early folia variant[2]Play.


The epithet 'Folia' has several meanings in music.

Western classical music features both 'early Folia', which can take different shapes, and the better-known 'later Folia' (also known as 'Follia' with double l in Italy, 'Folies d'Espagne' in France, and 'Faronel [fr]'s Ground' in England). Recent research suggests that the origin of the folia framework lies in the application of a specific compositional and improvisational method to simple melodies in minor mode. Thus, the essence of the 'early Folia' was not a specific theme or a fixed sequence of chords but rather a compositional-improvisational process which could generate these sequences of chords.[3] The 'later Folia' is a standard chord progression (i-V-i-VII / III-VII-[i or VI]-V / i-V-i-VII / III-VII-[i or VI7]-V[4-3sus]-i) and usually features a standard or 'stock' melody line, a slow sarabande in triple meter, as its initial theme. This theme generally appears at the start and end of a given 'folia' composition, serving as 'bookends' for a set of variations within which both the melodic line and even the meter may vary. In turn, written sets of variations on the 'later Folia' may contain sections consisting of more freely structured music, even in the semblance of partial or pure improvisation (a practice which might be compared in structural concept, if very different in musical material, to the performance in twelve-bar blues and other standard chord progressions that became common in the twentieth century.)

Several sources report that Jean-Baptiste Lully was the first composer to formalize the standard chord progression and melodic line.[4][5] Other sources note that the chord progression eventually associated with the 'later Folia' appeared in musical sources almost a century before the first documented use of the 'Folia' name. The progression emerged between the end of the 15th century and the beginning of the 16th century in vocal repertory found in both Italian ('Canzoniere di Montecassino', 'Canzoniere di Perugia' and in the frottola repertoire) and Spanish sources (mainly in the 'Cancionero Musical de Palacio' and, some years later, in the ensaladas repertoire).


Later folia variant.[6][7]Play

The framework of the 'Later Folia', in the key of G minor, the key that is most often used for the 'later Folia'; one chord per bar except for the cadential penultimate bar.

The basic 16-bar chord progression:[1]

Gm (i)D7 (V7)Gm (i)F (VII)Bb (III)F (VII)Gm (i)D7 (V7)
Gm (i)D7 (V7)Gm (i)F (VII)Bb (III)F (VII)Gm (i) D7 (V7)Gm (i)

Corelli And Vivaldi

Historical significance[edit]

A selection from Beethoven's Symphony No. 5, the 2nd movement, illustrating a use of La Folia starting at bar 166 of the movement

Over the course of three centuries, more than 150 composers have used it in their works. The first publications of this theme date from the middle of the 17th century, but it is probably much older. Plays of the renaissance theatre in Portugal, including works by Gil Vicente, mention the folia as a dance performed by shepherds or peasants. The Portuguese origin is recorded in the 1577 treatise De musica libri septem by Francisco de Salinas.[8]

Jean-Baptiste Lully, along with Philidor l'aîné[1] in 1672, Arcangelo Corelli in 1700, Marin Marais in 1701, Alessandro Scarlatti in 1710, Antonio Vivaldi in his Opus 1 No. 12 of 1705, Francesco Geminiani in his Concerto Grosso No. 12 (which was, in fact, part of a collection of direct transcriptions of Corelli's violin sonatas), George Frideric Handel in the Sarabande of his Keyboard Suite in D minor HWV 437 of 1727, and Johann Sebastian Bach in his Peasants' Cantata of 1742 are considered to highlight this 'later' folia repeating theme in a brilliant way. C. P. E. Bach composed a set of 12 variations for keyboard on the tune (H.263). Antonio Salieri's 26 Variations on La Folia, for orchestra, written towards the end of his career, is one of his finest works. Henry Purcell, in: The Fairy-Queen, first played in 1692, included a tune with resemblances to the Francesco Geminiani/Arcangelo Corelli: Concerto Grosso n 12; the 12 Corelli concerts were published in 1714, although a 1681 reference exists from Georg Muffat about having heard the compositions of this 'Italian Violin Orpheus' 'with extreme pleasure and full of admiration'.

In the 19th century, the Act I ballet of Les Abencérages (1813) by Luigi Cherubini is based on the Folia, Franz Liszt included a version of the Folia in his Rhapsodie Espagnole, and Ludwig van Beethoven quoted it briefly in the second movement of his Fifth Symphony.

La Folia once again regained composers' interest during the 1930s with Sergei Rachmaninov in his Variations on a theme by Corelli in 1931 and Manuel María Ponce and his Variations on 'Spanish Folia' and Fugue for guitar.

Without variations (290KB)
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The Folia melody has also influenced Scandinavian folk music. It is said[who?] that around half of the old Swedish tunes are based on La Folia. It is possible to recognize a common structure in many Swedish folk tunes, and it is similar to the Folia structure. Old folk tunes (19th century or older) which do not have this structure often come from parts of Sweden with little influences from upper classes or other countries.[dubious] 'Sinclairvisan' is set to the tune, as is 'Välment sorgesyn', no. 5b from Carl Michael Bellman's Songs of Fredman.[9]

The final section of Force Majeure by the electronic music group Tangerine Dream is built upon the later La Follia progression, and is specifically referenced in the fifth track from their 2014 work Josephine The Mouse Singer, titled 'Arcangelo Coreselli's La Folia'. It is also used in the Taizé chant 'Laudate Dominum'.[10] The main theme of Vangelis' Conquest of Paradise resembles the rhythmic paradigm of la folia intentionally. The Folia is used extensively in Max Richter's 2017 album Three Worlds: Music from Woolf Works.[11]

See also[edit]


Corelli Vivaldi
  1. ^ abcHudson, Richard (January–June 1973). 'The Folia Melodies'. Acta Musicologica. 45 (1): 98–119. doi:10.2307/932224. ISSN0001-6241. JSTOR932224.
  2. ^ abSimpson, Christopher (1665) cited in Esses, Maurice (1992). Dance and instrumental diferencias in Spain during the 17th and early 18th centuries. 1. Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon Press. p. 572. ISBN0945193084.
  3. ^Fiorentino, Giuseppe (2013). 'Folía': El origen de los esquemas armónicos entre tradición oral y transmisión escrita. DeMusica 17. Kassel: Edition Reichenberger. ISBN9783937734996.
  4. ^Paull, Jennifer (2007). Cathy Berberian and music's muses. Vouvry, Switzerland: Amoris Imprint. p. 263. ISBN9781847538895. 'One of the earliest known instrumental settings was Lully's Air des Hautbois, written in 1672 for the Bande des Hautbois.'
  5. ^Mather, Betty Bang (1987). Dance rhythms of the French Baroque: a handbook for performance. Music--scholarship and performance. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. p. 239. ISBN0253316065. 'The earliest instrumental couplet with the standard form is the one that starts Lully's arrangement of 1670 for Louis XIV's ...'
  6. ^Apel, Willi (1969). Harvard Dictionary of Music, p.323. ISBN978-0-674-37501-7.
  7. ^Randel, Don Michael (1999). The Harvard concise dictionary of music and musicians, p.236. ISBN978-0-674-00084-1.
  8. ^'(...) vt ostenditur in vulgaribus, quas Lusitani, Follias, vocant, ad hoc metri genus et ad hunc canendi modum institutis, qualis est illa.' (Chapter 6, page 308).
  9. ^'Which versions of the later Folia have been written down, transcribed or recorded?'. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  10. ^'Tune: LAUDATE DOMINUM (Berthier)'.
  11. ^Solís, Jose (18 April 2017). 'Max Richter on How Music Helps Him Understand the World'. PopMatters. Archived from the original on 26 April 2017. Retrieved 4 July 2017. I decided to use a piece of historical material as the basis for this, which is the Spanish 16th century tune 'La Folia' which I subjected to the same kinds of transformations Orlando undergoes in the novel ... The DNA of 'La Folia' travels across time in the Orlando music

La Folia Corelli Vivaldi

Corelli Vivaldi

External links[edit]

Vivaldi Corelli La Follia

  • La Folia (1490–1701) - Jordi Savall et al. - Alia Vox 9805 [1]
  • Altre Follie (1500–1750), Hespèrion XXI, Jordi Savall - Alia Vox 9844 [2]
  • El Nuevo Mundo - Folias Criollas, Tembembe Ensamble Continuo, La Capella Reial de Catalunya, Hespèrion XXI, dir. Jordi Savall - Alia Vox AVSA9876 [3]

Corelli And Vivaldi

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