Power Query Excel

To create Power Query formulas in Excel, you can use the Query Editor formula bar, or the Advanced Editor. The Query Editor is a tool included with Power Query that lets you create data queries and formulas in Power Query. The language used to create those formulas is the Power Query Formula Language. There are many Power Query formulas you can use to discover, combine and refine data. Excel for Mac now supports Power Query refresh for many data sources, as well as query creation through VBA. Authoring in the Power Query Editor is not supported yet. Refresh Power Query queries. You can refresh queries from the following data sources: Local.TXT,.CSV,.XLSX,.XML or.JSON files. Tables and ranges in the current workbook.


Power Query is a data transformation and data preparation engine. Power Query comes with a graphical interface for getting data from sources and a Power Query Editor for applying transformations. Because the engine is available in many products and services, the destination where the data will be stored depends on where Power Query was used. Using Power Query, you can perform the extract, transform, and load (ETL) processing of data.

Diagram with symbolized data sources on the right, passing though Power query for transformation, and then going to various destinations, such as Azure Data Lake Storage, Dataverse, Microsoft Excel, or Power BI.

How Power Query helps with data acquisition

Business users spend up to 80 percent of their time on data preparation, which delays the work of analysis and decision-making. Several challenges contribute to this situation, and Power Query helps address many of them.

Existing challengeHow does Power Query help?
Finding and connecting to data is too difficultPower Query enables connectivity to a wide range of data sources, including data of all sizes and shapes.
Experiences for data connectivity are too fragmentedConsistency of experience, and parity of query capabilities over all data sources.
Data often needs to be reshaped before consumptionHighly interactive and intuitive experience for rapidly and iteratively building queries over any data source, of any size.
Any shaping is one-off and not repeatableWhen using Power Query to access and transform data, you define a repeatable process (query) that can be easily refreshed in the future to get up-to-date data.
In the event that you need to modify the process or query to account for underlying data or schema changes, you can use the same interactive and intuitive experience you used when you initially defined the query.
Volume (data sizes), velocity (rate of change), and variety (breadth of data sources and data shapes)Power Query offers the ability to work against a subset of the entire dataset to define the required data transformations, allowing you to easily filter down and transform your data to a manageable size.
Power Query queries can be refreshed manually or by taking advantage of scheduled refresh capabilities in specific products (such as Power BI) or even programmatically (by using the Excel object model).
Because Power Query provides connectivity to hundreds of data sources and over 350 different types of data transformations for each of these sources, you can work with data from any source and in any shape.

Power Query experiences

The Power Query user experience is provided through the Power Query Editor user interface. The goal of this interface is to help you apply the transformations you need simply by interacting with a user-friendly set of ribbons, menus, buttons, and other interactive components.

The Power Query Editor is the primary data preparation experience, where you can connect to a wide range of data sources and apply hundreds of different data transformations by previewing data and selecting transformations from the UI. These data transformation capabilities are common across all data sources, whatever the underlying data source limitations.

When you create a new transformation step by interacting with the components of the Power Query interface, Power Query automatically creates the M code required to do the transformation so you don't need to write any code.

Currently, two Power Query experiences are available:

  • Power Query Online—Found in integrations such as Power BI dataflows, Microsoft Power Platform dataflows, Azure Data Factory wrangling dataflows, and many more that provide the experience through an online webpage.
  • Power Query for Desktop—Found in integrations such as Power Query for Excel and Power BI Desktop.


Although two Power Query experiences exist, they both provide almost the same user experience in every scenario.


The transformation engine in Power Query includes many prebuilt transformation functions that can be used through the graphical interface of the Power Query Editor. These transformations can be as simple as removing a column or filtering rows, or as common as using the first row as a table header. There are also advanced transformation options such as merge, append, group by, pivot, and unpivot.

All these transformations are made possible by choosing the transformation option in the menu, and then applying the options required for that transformation. The following illustration shows a few of the transformations available in Power Query Editor.

More information: Quickstart: Using Power Query in Power BI


Power Query can be used in many products, such as Power BI and Excel. However, using Power Query within a product limits its usage to only that specific product. Dataflows are a product-agnostic service version of the Power Query experience that runs in the cloud. Using dataflows, you can get data and transform data in the same way, but instead of sending the output to Power BI or Excel, you can store the output in other storage options such as Dataverse or Azure Data Lake Storage. This way, you can use the output of dataflows in other products and services.

More information: What are dataflows?

Power Query M formula language

In any data transformation scenario, there are some transformations that can't be done in the best way by using the graphical editor. Some of these transformations might require special configurations and settings that the graphical interface doesn't currently support. The Power Query engine uses a scripting language behind the scenes for all Power Query transformations: the Power Query M formula language, also known as M.


The M language is the data transformation language of Power Query. Anything that happens in the query is ultimately written in M. If you want to do advanced transformations using the Power Query engine, you can use the Advanced Editor to access the script of the query and modify it as you want. If you find that the user interface functions and transformations won't perform the exact changes you need, use the Advanced Editor and the M language to fine-tune your functions and transformations.

Power Query Excel Mac

More information: Power Query M formula language

Where can you use Power Query?

The following table lists Microsoft products and services where Power Query can be found.

Power Query Excel 365

ProductM engine1Power Query
Power Query
Excel for WindowsYesYesNoNo
Excel for MacYesNoNoNo
Power BIYesYesYesYes
Power AppsYesNoYesYes
Power AutomateYesNoYesNo
Azure Data FactoryYesNoYesYes
SQL Server Integration ServicesYesNoNoNo
SQL Server Analysis ServicesYesYesNoNo
Dynamics 365 Customer InsightsYesNoYesYes
1M engineThe underlying query execution engine that runs queries expressed in the Power Query formula language ('M').
2Power Query DesktopThe Power Query experience found in desktop applications.
3Power Query OnlineThe Power Query experience found in web browser applications.
4DataflowsPower Query as a service that runs in the cloud and is product-agnostic. The stored result can be used in other applications as services.

See also

Data sources in Power Query
Getting data
Power Query quickstart
Shape and combine data using Power Query
What are dataflows

Power query excel macWe noticed it first on April 20, 2021... the Get & Transform Data group's 'From Table/Range' changed to 'From Sheet'. Hover over the tooltip, and you will discover that they now support arrays!
This is great news. Power Query is the best thing to happen to Excel. Dynamic Arrays are another great improvement in Excel. The situation that they could not work together before this was unfortunate. Kudos to the Power Query team for providing the functionality!
Power query excel 2013 downloadPower Query ExcelNot that this is currently released to the 'Beta' channel (Formerly known as Insiders Fast). It will take some time to roll out to all Microsoft 365 customers.

Learn Excel from MrExcel Podcast episode 2400. Power query finally supports dynamic arrays.
Welcome back to MrExcel netcast. I am Bill Jelen. Something exciting today.
Look on the Data tab in Insiders Fast.
The old “From Table or Range” has now been named “From Sheet”.
Create a new query from the selected table, named range, or array in this workbook.
It used to be arrays wouldn't work with power query.
Great news, alright – so they've now added support for. Arrays. I have an array here using the SEQUENCE function.
And then just sending it into the ROMAN function to make it mildly interesting.
I choose any cell in that array. Data, From Sheet.
In other words, it's coming from something in the sheet as opposed to an external workbook.
I have no problem with that name. That's a good name - From Sheet.
And it will recognize the extent of the array. How is this working behind the scenes?
Over here in the Applied Steps, click on Source and it is pulling it in from a Name called from Array underscore 1.
They created that on the fly for us. Pretty cool.
Close and Load. And we get our data.
Let's go back to the original and add more columns.
By 3. Something like that right?
And then come to the query results. Right-click and refresh.
And it picks up the larger array. Now how's it doing this?
Back here on the formulas tab, if we go into the name manager, it's actually secretly creating an array called from Array_1 that points to D6 hash.
So it's just creating a named range on the fly. Pretty cool.
Finally, dynamic arrays and power query - two of the great things in Excel that would never work together are now working together.
Of course, this is officially the first feature that makes this book obsolete. But that's OK. I'm glad for progress.
Check out MrExcel 2021 Unmasking Excel. Click the I in the top right hand corner.
If you like these videos please Like, Subscribe, and Ring the Bell.
Feel free to post any questions or comments down in the comments below.
I want to thank you for stopping by. See you next time for another netcast MrExcel.